Relative dating methods are unable to determine the absolute age of an object or event, but can determine the impossibility of a particular event happening before or after another event of which the absolute date is well known.
In this relative dating method, Latin terms ante quem and post quem are usually used to indicate both the oldest and the most recent possible moments when an event occurred or an artifact was left in a stratum.
Different dating systems existed in ancient times and have been used next to each other, generating confusion and misunderstanding.
The basic points of reference are either the years of the reign of an emperor or local authority (regnal years) or a special local event like an important victory or a town gaining independence (local Era).
Reference to minting years highly contributes to the historical value of ancient coins.
As such, coins can be used as an independent source for archaeological and historical research.
And there are differences in the length of the first year.
The starting date of the famous Caesarean and Actian era is still subject of debate.In this article, a solution is proposed to offer a coherent and consistent year dating for the coins of Roman Antioch.There are several sources for confusion when interpreting ancient year counts.Though widely acknowledged as the oldest state that fits our modern concept of a unified nation, the actual age of the ancient nation of Egypt remains uncertain.Radiocarbon dating of artifacts from Egypt’s Pre-dynastic period and First Dynasty, reported September 4th in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A by Michael Dee and colleagues, suggests Egypt is younger than previously thought.